About Felt

Nuno Felting

Nuno felting is a fabric felting technique developed by Polly Stirling, a fiber artist from New South Wales, Australia, around 1992. The name is derived from the Japanese word "nuno" meaning cloth. The technique bonds loose fibre, usually wool, into a sheer fabric such as silk gauze, creating a lightweight felt. The fibres can completely cover the background fabric, or they may be used as a decorative design that allows the backing fabric to show. Nuno felting often incorporates several layers of loose fibres combined to build up colour, texture, and/or design elements in the finished fabric.

The nuno felting process is particularly suitable for creating lightweight fabrics used to make clothing. The use of silk or other stable fabric in the felt creates fabric that will not stretch out of shape. Fabrics such as nylon, muslin, or other open weaves can be used as the felting background, resulting in a wide range of textural effects and colours.

Nuno felt is an extremely versatile created fabric. It can be made in many weights to accommodate many different uses. It can be made much lighter in weight than traditional all-wool felt accounting for its wonderful movement and drape. Because of the range of weights possible with the cloth very fashionable and exciting garments can be made.
You would make a very light weight nuno fabric by laying one layer of loose fiber onto an open weave fabric base, thus being suitable for a summer dress. A much heavier nuno fabric results from laying 3-4 layers of loose fibers onto an open weave base making fabric suitable for a winter coat. A pair of boots could be made using even more layers of fibers.



Wool is only one kind of fiber that can be used in making this nonwoven cloth. There are hundreds of different wools and fibers to choose from, each with its own unique properties and handling abilities. Different fibers create different surface textures. Other types of fiber that will felt other than sheep's wool are: camel, llama, alpaca, Mohair goat, Cashmere goat, yak, Angora rabbit, beaver, dog, cat, human hair (think dredlocks).




is a technique that uses heat, moisture, and agitation to turn wool fibers into densely clustered felt materials. Hand-made felt takes a great deal of time to make. It starts by layering many levels of thin wisps of fiber to a desired thickness, wetting them down with soap & water then compressing them by force, preferably hand. The wool sheet is then rolled up in bubble wrap or thermal wrap and rolled for quite some time, in order to get the fibers hopelessly entangled with each other. Once the fibers have been compressed together,  the felt can then be thickened and strengthened by the hot water and more agitation like kneading and throwing. After working it for a lot more time, the fibers shrink further and eventually you end up with a new material- felt.
Ziek, B. (2004). The felt frontier: I: Polly Stirling: Contemporary feltmaker. Surface Design Journal, 28(4), 35-38